The history of the city of Qom
The name of this city “Qom” is rooted in the word “Kumeh” which means a kind of hut or shack made by shepherds to rest. Qom is a pronunciation of “Kumeh”
One doesnot know much of the condition and situation of this city in the Iilamik, Achamenid or Mad Era.
According to Grishman, the present realm and area of Qom belongs to the pre-Arian settlements in the Iranian platue. Based on this view and excavations in the hill of Qomrud, human settlements in this area date back to five thousand years B.C. The relics of these excavations exist in the museum of Ancient Persia and also in the museum of Astaneh in Qom.
In the recent excavations at the hills of Qoli Darvish close to the Jamkaran Mosque, some signs of furnaces belonging to the Iron Age have been found which are three thousand years old and prove that the city has been located in the eastern part of the present city and due to the changes in the direction of the Qomrud, the location of the city has changed. In the historical documents such as Nozhatol Qolub by Hamdollah Mostufi, it is stated that this city was famous in pre-Islamic Iran for its pistachio and its Safaran.
The Middle Ages
After Islam and when the Arab troops invaded the city through the leadership of Abu-Mosa Ash’ary, one area of the present city which was called Kamidan at that time became the settlement of the Arabs. Then, at the other side of the river of Qom (Anar bar), another area was invaded by the Arabs, that area was named Mamjan. The Arabs were mostly from the tribe of Ash’ary and even today, a section of the population of Qom are the descendents of the Ash’ary tribe.
After the death of Fatimah Ma’sumeh the sister of the eighth Imam of the Shiites in 201 (A.H.), the city became one of the major places for the Shiites. Qom has witnessed historical incidents which have led either to the flourishing or the stagnation of the city. The ruling of All-e-Booyeh and their minister, Saheb-Ibn-e Ebad and the flourishing of the city, Even right now some monuments of the city belong to that era such as Masjid Jameh Qom, the grand mosque of Qom, and Maydan kohneh, the old square, the governmental square of Alle-Booyeh.)
In 1342 (1963) thanks to the movement started by Ayyatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, this city became a center of the Islamic Revolution Qom is a newly-developed city in Iran which was not previously very significant. The city of Qom is the center of Qom province. The holy city of Qom became a province in 1375 (1996). Qom is the smallest province of the country with great potentials and is located in the dry and desert area. This province is bordered with Tehran in the north and bordered with Kashan in the south and form west it borders Saveh and Arak. According to the population survey of (1390), the population of the city is one million and one hundred thousand people. Therefore, Qom is the eighth densely populated city of Iran after Tehran, Mashad, Isfahan, Tabriz, Karaj and Ahwaz. Strategically speaking, Qom is an important province in the country. The holy shrine of Hazarat-e Masumeh (p.b.u.Her), the holy mosque of Jamkaran, the most important religious seminary, religious scholars, and jurisprudents and the religious students from 97 countries along with standing at the cross-road of 17 provinces of the country, have made Qom a significant international city. % 99/76 of the population of Qom are Muslims and the rest are the followers of other major divine religions.